Environmental Chemistry
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Research in environmental chemistry at UofT

Understanding the fundamental chemical processes that occur in the environment are critical for predicting and mitigating any deleterious effects to the environment. Within the chemistry department at U of T, we have 8 faculty dedicated to researching a wide variety of environmental chemistry topics including: atmospheric chemistry, soil chemistry, aquatic chemistry, photochemistry, and the modelling of pollutants in the environment.

The field of environmental chemistry is extremely diverse and highly interdisciplinary. We collaborate with not only other chemists in the department, but also with scientists from other universities, government agencies, and industry. Students have unique opportunities to participate in field campaigns and work closely with scientists at other institutions.


Research Groups

  • Jon Abbatt
    Jonathan Abbatt

    Abbatt Group

    Our group consists of analytical, environmental and physical chemists using state-of-the-art instrumentation to study the chemistry of processes involved in environmental change, both on global and on local scales. Emphasis is placed upon understanding these chemical phenomena at a molecular level so that laboratory results can be reliably incorporated into environmental models. Current projects are related to: chemistry of the indoor environment, Arctic chemistry and connections to global warming, the role that aerosol particles play in the chemistry of the atmosphere. [more]

    Research: atmospheric chemistry, aerosol processes, cloud formation, chemical kinetics

  • Jamie Donaldson
    Jamie Donaldson

    Donaldson Group

    Research in my laboratory brings techniques of physical chemistry to understand fundamental aspects of atmospheric and environmental chemistry. We use laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopies, non-linear laser spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance FTIR and quantum chemical methods, combined with standard analytical methods to probe and understand chemical interactions of atmospheric importance. These include: the kinetics and mechanisms of reactions taking place at aerosol, water and ice surfaces and in "urban surface films"; heterogeneous photochemistry on a variety of atmospheric surfaces; and novel chemistry induced by vibrational excitation. [more]

    Research: photochemistry, interfacial atmospheric chemistry, chemical kinetics

  • Scott Mabury
    Scott Mabury

    Mabury Group

    Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that determine the environmental fate, disposition, and persistence of chemical pollutants is fundamental to formulating solutions to current and future environmental problems. Currently we are investigating the role that sunlight plays in the "natural cleansing" of rivers, lakes, and oceans via the generation of reactive oxidants (e.g. hydroxyl and carbonate radical). Additionally, we are interested in the increased use of fluorine as a structural component in industrial and agrochemicals. Little is known regarding the influence fluorine has on the environmental persistence of these potential pollutants, or more specifically, on the fate of the fluorine itself. [more]

    Research: fluorinated chemicals, fate of pollutants, photochemistry

  • Jennifer Murphy
    Jennifer Murphy

    Murphy Group

    The field of environmental chemistry comprises many research questions that are both challenging to scientists and relevant to society. Research in our group applies state-of-the-science analytical techniques to address issues including urban air quality, climate change, acid precipitation, and ecosystem function. Earth systems are difficult to fully characterize because of the range of temporal and spatial scales involved, and the large number of feedbacks, non-linearities, and interactions between systems. Models developed to represent these systems are often poorly constrained due to the limited availability of long term, precise, and accurate observations with adequate geographic coverage and spatial resolution. Our focus is on field measurements, particularly of reactive nitrogen compounds, that can be used to evaluate our understanding of the rates and mechanisms of chemical transformations in the environment. [more]

    Research: atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemistry, science of global change

  • Hui Peng
    Hui Peng

    Peng Group

    Research in our group relies on the interface between chemistry and biology to answer fundamental environmental questions. We focus on the development of novel techniques to address the following bottlenecks of current environmental science research: i) the limited capacity of traditional targeted chemical analysis strategies to monitor the growing number of known and unknown environmental chemicals introduced into commerce ; ii) limited information is available regarding toxic mechanisms (i.e., protein targets) for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. We are currently focusing on three research directions:

    • Untargeted identification of novel environmental chemicals

    • Investigation on sources and behaviors of environmental chemicals

    • Unbiased identification of protein targets by chemical proteomics

    Website coming soon

  • Andre Simpson
    Andre Simpson

    A. Simpson Group

    My research aims to develop novel analytical spectroscopy-based methods to investigate the reactivity, structures, and associations of molecules or groups of molecules in the environment. In analytical environmental chemistry dealing with very complex naturally occurring mixtures is unavoidable yet there is a lack of spectroscopic approaches available or in development that can provide crucial, molecular-level information desperately required to fully understand global environmental processes. Complex systems such as soils, marine sediments and atmospheric particles are routinely treated as “black boxes”. My research specifically focuses on the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, and its hyphenation with other, analytical methods. NMR spectroscopy is the single most powerful analytical technique for the analysis of organic structures. [more]

    Research: NMR and MRI, environmental stress in organisms, aquatic chemistry, carbon cycling

  • Myrna Simpson
    Myrna Simpson

    M. Simpson Group

    My research in environmental and analytical chemistry involves the development and application of molecular-level analytical tools to improve the fundamental understanding of soil environmental processes. My group uses advanced mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods to characterize, monitor and predict the fate of soil organic matter components in various environments. Soil organic matter is responsible for all life on this planet but its chemistry is poorly understood. Furthermore, soil organic matter plays an important role in the regulation of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Therefore, we are studying soil organic matter turnover in extreme environments (such as the Arctic and Antarctic) as well as under enhanced warming (ie: climate change). By understanding the fundamental chemistry of soil organic matter, we will be able to better predict its role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in a changing world. [more]

    Research: NMR, contaminant sorption, organic geochemistry, soil chemistry, metabolomics

  • Frank Wania
    Frank Wania

    Wania Group

    Our research is concerned with understanding and quantifying the fate and behaviour of chemicals in the environment. The focus is on phase partitioning and transport of organic contaminants. The presence of persistent, anthropogenic compounds in remote areas such as the Arctic has resulted in considerable interest in their global transport and accumulation behaviour. Our work aims at an improved conceptual understanding and quantification of the processes involved in the global dispersion of these chemicals. Our group has three main interests: 1) the global fate of persistent contaminants, 2) the air-surface exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds, and 3) measurements and estimation methods of physical-chemical properties and phase equilibria. [more]

    Research: persistent organic pollutants, modelling chemical fate in the environment

Selected Publications

  • Abbatt Group

    J.P.D. Abbatt, C. George, M. Melamed, P. Monks, S. Pandis, Y. Rudich, Fundamentals of atmospheric chemistry: Keeping a three-legged stool balanced, Atmos. Environ., 84, 390-391 (2014).

    M. Antiñolo, M. D. Willis, S. Zhou, J. P. D. Abbatt. Connecting the oxidation of soot to its redox cycling abilities. Nature Communications, 6, 6812 (2015).

    S. Zhou, M. W. Forbes, J. P. D. Abbatt, Application of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) to the study of gas-surface heterogeneous reactions: focus on ozone and PAHs. Anal. Chem. DOI: 10.1021/ac504722z (2015).

    N. Borduas, G. da Silva, J.G. Murphy, J.P.D. Abbatt, Experimental and Theoretical Understanding of the Gas Phase Oxidation of Atmospheric Amides with OH Radicals: Kinetics, Products, and Mechanisms. J. Phys. Chem. A. DOI: 10.1021/jp503759f (2015).

    A.K.Y. Lee, M.D. Willis, R.M. Healy, T. Onasch, and J.P.D. Abbatt, Mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol in an urban environment: Single particle characterization using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1823-1841 (2015).

    J.P.S. Wong, A.K.Y. Lee, J.P.D. Abbatt, Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation, Environ. Sci and Tech., 49, 13215-13221 (2015).

    T.W. Wilson, L.A. Ladino, P.A. Alpert, M.N. Breckels, I.M. Brooks, J. Browse, S.M. Burrows, K.S. Carslaw, J.A. Huffman, C. Judd, W.P. Kilthau, R.H. Mason, G. McFiggans, L.A. Miller, J.J. Najera, E. Polishchuk, S. Rae, C.L. Schiller, M. Si, J.V. Temprado, T.F. Whale, J.P.S. Wong, O. Wurl, J.D. Yakobi-Hancock, J.P.D. Abbatt, J.Y. Aller, A.K. Bertram, D.A. Knopf, B.J. Murray, A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles, Nature, 525, 234-238 (2015).

    R. Zhao, A.K.Y. Lee, L. Huang, X. Li, F. Yang, J.P.D. Abbatt, Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6087-6100 (2015).

    C. Borrowman, S. Zhou, TE Burrow, JPD Abbatt, Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and polycyclic aromatic compounds, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 18, 205-212 (2016).

  • Donaldson Group

    E. A. Henderson and D.J. Donaldson, "The Influence of Organic Coatings on Pyrene Ozonolysis at the Air-Aqueous Interface", J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 423-429 (2012)

    S. A. Styler and D.J. Donaldson, "Photooxidation of Atmospheric Alcohols on Laboratory Proxies for Mineral Dust", Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 10004-10012 (2011).

    S.N. Wren and D.J. Donaldson, "The exclusion of nitrate to the air-ice interface during freezing" J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2, 1967-1971 (2011).

    D.J. Donaldson, C. George and V. Vaida, "Red sky at night: Long-wavelength photochemistry in the atmosphere", Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 5321-5326 (2010).

    C.J. Young and D.J. Donaldson, "Overtone-induced degradation of perfluorinated alcohols in the atmosphere", J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 13466-13471 (2007).

    D.J. Donaldson and J.S. Francisco, "Bimolecular Reaction of Molecular Oxygen with Overtone Excited HOOH: Implications for Recycling HO2 in the Atmosphere", Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 3183 - 3187 (2003).

    Diego Ardura, Tara F. Kahan and D.J. Donaldson, "Self-association of naphthalene at the air-ice interface" J. Phys. Chem. A 113 7353-7359 (2009).

    Diego Ardura and D.J. Donaldson, "Where does acid hydrolysis take place?" Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 857-863 (2009).

    M. Staikova, F. Wania, D. J. Donaldson, "Molecular polarizability as a single- parameter predictor of vapor pressures and octanol-air partitioning coefficients of non-polar compounds: a-priori approach and results" Atmos. Environ . 38 213-225 (2004)

  • Mabury Group

    Rand, Amy A.; Mabury, Scott A. 2012 In Vitro Interactions of Biological Nucleophiles with Fluorotelomer Unsaturated Acids and Aldehydes: Fate and Consequences. Env Sci & Technol 46:7398-7406

    Lee, Holly; De Siva, Amila O.; Mabury, Scott A. 2012. Dietary Bioaccumulation of Perfluorophosphonates and Perfluorophosphinates in Juvenile Rainbow Trout: Evidence of Metabolism of Perfluorophosphinates. Env Sci & Technol 46:3489-3497

    D'eon, Jessica C.; Mabury, Scott A. 2011. Is Indirect Exposure a Significant Contributor to the Burden of Perfluorinated Acids Observed in Humans? Env Sci & Technol 45:7974-7984

    Jackson, Derek A.; Young, Cora J.; Hurley, Michael D.; Wallington, TJ, & SA Mabury. 2011. Atmospheric Degradation of Perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone: Photolysis, Hydrolysis and Hydration. Env Sci & Technol 45:8030-8036

    Rand, Amy A.; Mabury, Scott A. 2011. Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Directly Fluorinated High-Density Polyethylene Material. Env Sci & Technol 45:8053-8059

    Lee, Holly; Mabury, Scott A. 2011. A Pilot Survey of Legacy and Current Commercial Fluorinated Chemicals in Human Sera from United States Donors in 2009. Env Sci & Technol 45:8067-8074.

    D'eon, Jessica C.; Mabury, Scott A. 2011. Exploring Indirect Sources of Human Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates (PFCAs): Evaluating Uptake, Elimination, and Biotransformation of Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) in the Rat. Env Health Persp 119:344-350

  • Murphy Group

    VandenBoer, T.C., Petroff, A., Markovic, M.Z., Murphy, J.G., "Size distribution of alkyl amines in continental particulate matter and their online detection in the gas and particle phase", Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 4319-4332, 2011.

    Markovic, M. Z., Hayden, K.L., Murphy, J.G., Makar, P.A., Ellis, R. A., Chang, R.Y.-W., Slowik, J.G., Mihele, C., Brook, J. "The effect of meteorological and chemical factors on the agreement between observations and predictions of fine aerosol composition in Southwestern Ontario during BAQS-Met", Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 3195-3210, 2011.

    Ellis, R. A., Murphy, J.G., Markovic, M.Z., VandenBoer, T. C., Makar, P. A., Brook, J, Mihele, C. "The influence of gas-particle partitioning and surface-atmosphere exchange on ammonia during BAQS-Met", Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 133-145, 2011.

    Murphy, J.G., Reeves, C.E., Oram, D.E., "Measurements of volatile organic compounds over West Africa", Atmos Chem Phys, 10, 5281-5294, 2010.

    Ellis, R.A., Murphy, J.G., Pattey, E., van Haarlem, R., O’Brien, J.M., Herndon, S.C., "Characterizing a Quantum Cascade Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC-TILDAS) for Measurements of Atmospheric Ammonia", Atmos Meas Tech, 3, 397-406, 2010.

    von Bobrutzki, K., C. F. Braban, D. Famulari, S. K. Jones, T. Blackall, T. E. L. Smith, M. Blom, H. Coe, M. Gallagher, M. Ghalaieny, M. R. McGillen, C. J. Percival, J. D. Whitehead, R. Ellis, J. Murphy, A. Mohacsi, H. Junninen, A. Pogany, S. Rantanen, M. A. Sutton, and E. Nemitz, "Field Inter-comparison of Eleven Ammonia Measurement Techniques", Atmos Meas Tech, 3, 91-112, 2010.

    Geddes, J.A., Murphy, J.G., Wang, D.K., "Long term changes in nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in Toronto and the challenges facing local ozone control", Atmos Env, 43, 3407-3415, 2009.

  • Peng Group

    Peng H, Guo HB, Pogoutse O, Wan CH, Hu ZL, Ni ZY, Emili A. (2016) An unbiased chemical proteomics method identifies FabI as the primary protein target of 6-OH-BDE-47. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 11329-11336.

    Peng H, Saunders DMV, Sun JX, Johns PD, Wong CKS, Liu HL, Giesy JP. (2016) Mutagenic Azo dyes, rather than flame retardants, are predominant brominated compounds in house dust. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 12669-12677 (Featured in C&EN).

    Peng H, Sun JX, Alharbi HA, Jones PD, Giesy JP, Wiseman S. (2016) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is a sensitive target for oil sands process-affected water: effects on adipogenesis and identification of ligands. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 7816-7824.

    Peng H, Chen CL, Cantin J, Saunders DMV, Sun JX, Tang S, Codling G, Hecker M, Wiseman S, Johns PD, Li A, Rockne K, Sturchio NC, Giesy JP. (2016) Untargeted screening and distribution of organo-bromine compounds in sediments of Lake Michigan. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 321-330.

    Sun JX, Tang S, Peng H*, Saunders DMV, Doering JA, Hecker M, Jones PD, Giesy JP, Wiseman S. (2016) A combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach to identify and predict toxicity pathways in early-life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO). Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 7781-7790.

    Peng H, Chen CL, Cantin J, Saunders DMV, Sun JX, Tang S, Codling G, Hecker M, Wiseman S, Johns PD, Li A, Rockne K, Sturchio NC, Giesy JP. (2016) Untargeted screening and distribution of organo-iodine compounds in sediments of Lake Michigan. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 10097–10105.

    Peng H, Saunders DMV, Sun JX, Codling G, Wiseman S, Johns PD, Giesy JP. (2015) Detection, identification, and quantification of hydroxylated bis (2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate isomers in house dust. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 2999-3006.

    Peng H, Chen CL, Cantin J, Saunders DMV, Sun JX, Tang S, Codling G, Hecker M, Wiseman S, Johns PD, Li A, Rockne K, Sturchio NC, Giesy JP. (2015) Untargeted identification of organo-bromine compounds in lake sediments by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry with the data-independent precursor isolation and characteristic fragment method. Anal. Chem. 87, 10237-10246.

    Peng H, Wan Y, Zhang K, Sun JX, Hu JY. (2014) Trophic transfer of dechloranes in the marine food web of Liaodong Bay, North China. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 5458-5466.

    Peng H, Zhang SY, Sun JX, Zhang Z, Giesy JP, Hu JY. (2014) Isomer-specific accumulation of perfluorooctanesulfonate from (N-Ethyl prefluorooctanesulfonamido) ethanol-basesd phosphate diester in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 1058-1066.

    Hu JY, Zhang ZB, Wei QW, Zhen HJ, Zhao YB, Peng H, Wan Y, Giesy JP, Li LX, and Zhang B. (2009) Malformations of the endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and its causal agent. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 9339-9344.

    Peng H, Wei QW, Wan Y, Giesy JP, Li LX, Hu JY. (2010) Tissue distribution and maternal transfer of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis): implications for reproductive risk. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 1868-1874.

  • A. Simpson Group

    Simpson A.J., Tseng L., Spraul M., Brauman U, Kingery W.L., Kelleher B., Simpson M.J. The application of LC-NMR and LC-SPE-NMR for the separation of Natural Organic Matter, 2004, The Analyst 129:1216-1222.

    Kelleher B.P., A.J., Simpson, Willeford K.O., Simpson, M.J., Stout, R., Kingery W.L. Acid phosphatase interactions with organo-mineral complexes: Influence on catalytic activity. Biogeochemistry, 2004, 71, (3) : 285-297.

    Simpson A.J, Kingery W.L, Williams A, Golotvin S, Kvasha M, Kelleher B.K, Moser A, Lefebvre B., Identifying Residues in Natural Organic Matter through Spectral Prediction and Pattern Matching of 2-D NMR datasets, Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 2004; 42: p. 14–22.

    Deshmukh, A.P, Simpson A.J, and Hatcher P.G, Evidence for Cross-Linking in Tomato Cutin Using HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy, Phytochemistry, 2003; 64: p. 1163–1170.

    Diallo M.S, Simpson A.J, Faulon J.L, Gassman P, Goddard W. A, Johnnson J, Hatcher P.G, Unraveling the 3-D Structures of Natural Organic Matter through Experimental Characterization, Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation and Atomistic simulations. Environmental Science and Technology, 2003, 37 (9), p. 1783-1793.

    Simpson, A.J, Kingery W.L, and Hatcher P.G, The identification of plant derived structures in humic materials using three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Environmental Science and Technology, 2003, 37(2): p. 337-342.

    Kelleher B.P, Oppenheimer S.F, Kingery W.L, Han F.X, Willeford K.O, Simpson M.J, Simpson A.J, Dynamical System Analysis of Protease-Clay Interactions. Langmuir, 2003, 19: p. 9411-9417.

    Simpson A.J, Zang X, Kramer R, Hatcher P.G, New insights on the structure of algaenan from Botryoccocus braunii race A and its hexane insoluble botryals based on multidimensional NMR spectroscopy and electrospray-mass spectrometry techniques. Phytochemistry, 2003, 62(5): p. 783-796.

    Simpson, A.J., Determining the molecular weight, aggregation, structures and interactions of natural organic matter using diffusion ordered spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 2002, 40, p. S72-S82.

  • M. Simpson Group

    Brown, S. A. E., J. R. McKelvie, A. J. Simpson, and M. J. Simpson. 2010. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to phenanthrene in soil. Environmental Pollution 158:2117-2123.

    Pautler, B. G., A. J. Simpson, D. J. McNally, S. Lamoureux, and M. J. Simpson. 2010. Arctic permafrost active layer detachments stimulate microbial activity and degradation of soil organic matter. Environmental Science and Technology 44:4076-4082.

    McKelvie, J. R., M. Elsner, A. J. Simpson, B. Sherwood Lollar, and M. J. Simpson. 2010. Quantitative site-specific 2H NMR investigation of MTBE: Potential for assessing contaminant sources and fate. Environmental Science & Technology 44:1062-1068.

    Simpson, M. J. and J. R. McKelvie. 2009. Environmental metabolomics: New insights into earthworm ecotoxicity and contaminant bioavailability in soil. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 394: 137-149.

    McKelvie, J.R., J. Yuk, Y. Xu, A. J. Simpson and M. J. Simpson. 2009. 1H NMR and GC/MS metabolomics of Esenia Fetida responses to DDT and Endosulfan exposure. Metabolomics 5: 84-94.

    Feng, X., A. J. Simpson, K. P. Wilson, D. D. Williams, and M. J. Simpson. 2008. Increased cuticular carbon sequestration and lignin oxidation in response to soil warming. Nature Geoscience1:836-839.

    Shirzadi, A, M. J. Simpson, R. Kumar, A. Baer, and A. J. Simpson. 2008. Molecular interactions of pesticides at the soil-water interface. Environmental Science and Technology 42:5514-5520.

    Bonin, J. L. and M. J. Simpson. 2007. Variation in phenanthrene sorption coefficients with soil organic matter fractionation: The result of structure or conformation? Environmental Science and Technology 41:153-159.

    Feng, X., A. J. Simpson, and M. J. Simpson. 2006. Investigating the role of mineral-bound humic acid in phenanthrene sorption. Environmental Science and Technology 40:3260-3266.

  • Wania Group

    Wania, F., M.S. McLachlan. Estimating the influence of forests on the overall fate of semivolatile organic compounds using a multimedia fate model. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2001, 35, 582-590.

    Lei, Y.D., F. Wania, W.Y. Shiu, D.C.B. Boocock. HPLC-based method for estimating the temperature dependence of n-octanol-water partition coefficients. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2000, 45, 738-742.

    Wania, F., R. Semkin, J.T. Hoff, D. Mackay. Modelling the fate of non-polar organic chemicals during the melting of an Arctic snowpack. Hydrol. Proces. 1999, 13, 2245-2256.

    Wania, F.; D. Mackay. Global chemical fate of a-hexachlorocyclohexane. Part 2: Use of a global distribution model for mass balancing, source apportionment, and trend predictions. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18, 1400-1407.

    Wania, F. On the origin of elevated levels of persistent chemicals in the environment. ESPR - Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.1999, 6, 11-19.

    Wania, F.; J.-E. Haugen; Y. D. Lei; D. Mackay. Temperature dependence of atmospheric concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds. Environ. Sci. Technol.1998, 32, 1013-1021.

    Wania, F.; D. Mackay. Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1996, 30, 390A- 396A.

    Hoff, J. T.; F. Wania; D. Mackay; R. Gilham. Sorption of non-polar organic vapors by ice and snow. Environ. Sci. Technol.1995, 29, 1982-1989.