4th Year Courses

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Research courses
CHM 410F CHM 414F CHM 416S CHM 418Y CHM 421S CHM 423S CHM 425S
CHM 427F CHM 428YCHM 429F CHM 432S CHM 434F CHM 437S CHM 438F
CHM 439Y CHM 440S CHM 441F CHM 442F CHM 443S CHM 447S CHM 449Y

Introduction to Research
CHM 418Y CHM 428Y CHM 439Y CHM 449Y

These courses, only one of which may be taken, enable students to become more familiar with chemistry as it is carried out in practice. Each course consists of working as an active member of the research group associated with a staff member. Students are expected to spend approximately 260 hours during the academic year on their research problem.

All students following the Chemistry Specialist Program, or one of the joint specialist programs involving Chemistry (Biological Chemistry, Chemistry and Geology, Chemical Physics, Materials Science) are strongly encouraged to consider taking one of these courses. The opportunity for doing original work in one of the branches of chemistry in the atmosphere of a research laboratory is a very valuable one, not only for prospective graduate work, but also for many other endeavours.

Enrolment in these courses is limited and application for admission must be made to the Department in the spring prior to entry into fourth year. Students are encouraged to visit staff members prior to submission of their applications and to indicate their choice of areas of interest on the application.

CHM 418Y Introduction to Research in Analytical Chemistry
CHM 428Y Introduction to Research in Physical Chemistry
CHM 439Y Introduction to Research in Inorganic Chemistry
-- Corequisite: CHM 438H
CHM 449Y Introduction to Research in Organic Chemistry

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CHM 410F Analytical Environmental Chemistry

2 lectures / 1 discussion / 4 lab hours
L0101 TR4, F9-1Dr. Mabury

Lecturer: Dr. S. Mabury LM 321A 978-1780

Background: Continuation of CHM 310H.

Recommended Text: Skoog & Leary, Instrumental Methods of Analysis

Topics: CHM 410H is an analytical theory, instrumental, and methodology course focused on the measurement of trace concentrations of pollutants in soil, water, air, and biological tissues. The determination of environmentally important properties such as vapor pressure, degradation rates, partitioning, etc will also be investigated. The course will begin with techniques involved with obtaining a representative sample, data analysis and handling , and a detailed look at sample preparation (extraction, clean-up, concentration, derivitization) and chromatographic theory. Specific techniques will then be covered in depth and include gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (partition, adsorption, ion-exchange, size-exclusion, electrophoresis and corresponding detection systems), atomic spectrophotometry (absorbance, emission, and fluorescence), electrochemistry, immunochemistry (e.g. ELISA), and radiochemistry. The final section of the course will focus on the detection systems of IR, NMR, and a detailed look at ionization (EI, CI, FAB, thermospray, electrospray, etc.) and mass analysis (magnetic sector, quadrupole, ion-trap, time-of-flight, etc.) in mass spectrometry. Lecture will be supplemented with class discussion and presentations on selective analytical methodologies.

Laboratory experiments will focus on the application of theory presented in lecture. Students will have extended opportunities to learn sample preparation, chromatographic, and detection techniques on a number of analytes. Specific analyses will include: determination of the hydrolysis rates of three organophosphorus insecticides; measurement of vapor pressure and Kow of three chlorinated hydrocarbons; the mass spectrometric and immunoanalysis of a triazine herbicide and its degradation products in Lake Ontario water; the determination of capsaicin in hot peppers; lead, arsenic, or mercury in soil/fish; analysis of formaldehyde in cigarette smoke; and 14C-DDT bioconcentration in fish.

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CHM414F Developing Techniques in Analytical Chemistry

(Graduate Course: CHM 1102F)

2 lectures
L0101 TR 12 Dr. Stone

Lecturer: Dr. D. Stone LM 146 978-6568

Background: Prerequisite CHM314Y

Required Text: There is no specific text for this course. Instead, students will be provided with references to relevant articles and reviews in the primary scientific literature as well as additional material provided during the course. Students having the CHM314Y course text are recommended to retain it for background reading.

Topics: This course concerns the principles of sensor technology with an emphasis on biological applications. The first section will introduce the basic concepts and historical background of chemical and biological sensors (or biosensors). Different transduction mechanisms and device architectures will be described with reference to real applications. The use of molecular recognition will also be discussed. The second section will be concerned with the chemical modification of transducer interfaces to achieve the required chemical selectivity. This will include both biological and biomimetic systems, as well as other coating strategies and the use of chemometric techniques. Methods for characterizing and evaluating sensor surfaces and performance will also be described.

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CHM416S Separation Science

(Graduate Course: CHM 1104S)

2 lectures
L0101 TR 11 Dr. Stone

Lecturer: Dr. D.C. Stone LM 146 978-6568

Background: Prerequisite CHM314Y

Required Text: There is no required text for this course. A recommended text is D.A. Skoog and J.J. Leary, Principals of Instrumental Analysis, 4th ed., Saunders. Alternative texts will be suggested at the beginning of the course.

Topics: This course is intended as an extension of the material dealt with in CHM 314Y. Initial discussion will focus on the scope of separation technology of all kinds in chemistry in general and analytical chemistry in particular. Areas considered will include precipitation, fractionation, extraction techniques and a detailed consideration of chromatographic theory. Specific techniques discussed will include both gas and high performance liquid chromatography, ion exchange, ion, size exclusion, supercritical fluid and affinity chromatographies and gel and capillary electrophoresis. While examples will be drawn from a variety of sources, emphasis will be on biological and biochemical applications.

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CHM 418Y Introduction to Research in Analytical Chemistry



Prerequisite: Permission of Department

Recommended preparation: CHM314Y/319H

Topics: An experimental or theoretical research problem under the supervision of a member of staff.

Applications for enrolment should be made to the Department in the preceding spring. See beginning of 4th Year section for more details.

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CHM 421S Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics

2 lectures
L0101 TR 10 Dr. Wallace

Lecturer: Dr. S.C. Wallace LM 420 978-3561

Background: prerequisite: CHM 327Y or equivalent.

Recommended Texts: There is no one text suitable for this course, so appropriate reference material will be supplied and handouts provided. Suitable reference books are as follows: R.D. Levine and R.B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics And Chemical Reactivity, Oxford University Press 1987 QD461.L66
J.N. Murrell, S. Carter, S.C. Farantos, P. Huxley, and A.J.C. Varandas, Molecular Potential Energy Functions, Wiley 1984 QD 461.5.M65
I.N. Levine, Quantum Chemistry (4th edition), Prentice Hall 1991 QD462.L48
G.R. Fleming, Chemical Applications for Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Oxford University Press 1986 QD 96.L3F57

Topics: This course is intended to introduce reaction kinetics from the perspective of the fundamental dynamical processes, which lead to chemical change. The basic concepts of the molecular potential energy surfaces and their utility in predicting the dynamical phenomena observed are the core theme in this course. There will be a balance of theoretical and experimental material covered in both reaction dynamics and energy transfer. This material will be extended to appliations in the condensed phase and the use of ultra-fast laser techniques to probing these molecular dynamics on a fundamental level.

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CHM 423S Applications of Quantum Mechanics

This course has now been consolidated with CHM 1478S "Quantum Mechanics for Physical Chemists," a graduate course. Undergraduate students wishing to take the course should consult Professor Paul Brumer at: LM 405A, 978-3569, pbrumer@alchemy.chem.utoronto.ca.

Background: CHM 429H or equivalent

Topics: Approximation methods in time independent and time dependent Quantum Mechanics with molecular applications. Introduction to scattering theory. Modern issues relating to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, such as Bell's theorem, EPR paradox, etc.

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CHM 425S Electrochemistry and Surface Chemistry

This course has been cancelled.

Background: CHM 327Y or an equivalent background in thermodynamics.

Recommended text: Students should have a good comprehensive Physical Chemistry text, for example the texts used in CHM 327Y. Additional reading will be suggested.

Topics: The course will present the fundamental aspects of electrochemistry and surface chemistry. It will begin with a review of macroscopic phenomenology and then proceed to develop a microscopic picture of the dynamical phenomena occurring at interfacial regions. The thermodynamics of surfaces, surface films, and adsorption phenomena will be examined. The nature of colloids and factors influencing their stability will be discussed. Some applications to biophysical phenomena will be presented.

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CHM 427F Statistical Mechanics

2 lectures
L0101 TR 4 Dr. Valleau

Lecturer: Dr. J. Valleau LM 404A 978-3595

Background: prerequisites: CHM 327Y or equivalent. A good command of mathematics is essential.

Recommended text: D. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics, Harper and Row (pbk)

References: M. Plischke and B. Bergersen, Equilibrium Statistical Physics, World Scientific
L.E. Reichel, A Modern Course in Statistical Physics, University of Texas Press
D. Chandler, Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics, Oxford

Topics: The course will use ensemble theory to address topics in the theory of matter at equilibrium (equation-of-state of fluids, phase transition phenomena), and present the basic theory of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

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CHM428Y Introduction to Research in Physical Chemistry


Exclusion: CHM418Y/439Y/449Y

Prerequisite: CHM327Y and permission of Department

Topics: An experimental or theoretical research problem under the supervision of a member of the Physical Chemistry staff. Enrolment in this course may be restricted and must be approved by the Department. Applications for enrolment should be made to the Department in the preceding spring. See beginning of 4th Year section for more details.

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CHM 429F Basic Quantum Chemistry

2 lectures
L0101 TR 1 Dr. Brilliantov

Lecturer: Dr. N. Brilliantov LM 608A 978-8603

Background: prerequisite: CHM 229H

Required text: Ira Levine, Quantum Chemistry, 4th ed., Prentice Hall

Topics: This course is based on the material of CHM 229H. It starts with a discussion of the basic principles of quantum mechanics and moves on to treat some exactly solvable problems including harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom. The approximation methods such as perturbation theory and variational method are considered along with their applications. The problem of angular momentum and its role in chemical bonding, atomic and molecular electronic structure is discussed.

This course is a prerequisite or strongly recommended for: CHM 423S.

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Last update: 6 December 1996.